Advice
Legislation

What combination of tyres is not permitted on the same axle?

FITTING NEW TYRES

In general, the UK Construction and Use Regulations require that tyres of the same construction should be fitted
on the same axle. Fitting tyres with different tread patterns is tolerated provided they:

• have sufficient load capacity for the plated weights of the vehicle axle
• are the same size
• are the same structure (radial or diagonal)
• have sufficient speed capacity.

However, for optimised tyre performance Michelin recommends fitting tyres with the same tread pattern on the same axle.  If this is not possible, Michelin advises mounting twinned tyres of the same type. For certain tyres, Michelin issues Technical Bulletins indicating in what configurations they can be mixed and fitted.

Wear and tear

usure

In an extract from UK conditions and use regulation 27, it is stipulated that a pneumatic tyre shall not be used on the road if:

  • the tyre has a cut in excess of 25 mm or 10% of the section width of the tyre, whichever is the greater; measured in any direction on the outside of the tyre and deep enough to reach the ply or cord.
  • the tyre has any lump, bulge or tear caused by separation or partial failure of its structure;
  • the tyre has any of the ply or cord exposed.
  • the base of any groove which showed in the original tread pattern of the tyre is not clearly visible;
  • either -
    • the grooves of the tread pattern of the tyre do not have a depth of at least 1 mm throughout a continuous band measuring at least three-quarters of the breadth of the tread and round the entire outer circumference of the tyre; or
    • if the grooves of the original tread pattern did not extend beyond three-quarters of the breadth of the tread, any groove which showed in the original tread pattern does not have a depth of at least 1 mm; or
  • the tyre is not maintained in such condition as to be fit for the use to which the vehicle or trailer is being put or has a defect which might in any way cause damage to the surface of the road or damage to persons on or in the vehicle or to other persons using the road.

Inspecting for wear and tear

Inspecting for wear and tear must always be done at several points on the tyre.

The inspection can be carried out using a tread depth gauge or by observing the wear indicators on the tread pattern indicated by a symbol on the sidewall (if present).

If the legal or technical limits for wear have been reached, the tyre must be removed and replaced.  Please refer to relevant country legislation.

Consult a qualified tyre professional in the case of abnormal or uneven wear of tyres fitted on the same axle.

Fitting regrooved tyres

The UK Construction and Use Regulations permit the fitting of regrooved tyres on axles of commercial vehicles
weighing more than 2540kg unladen weight, including for the transport of persons or hazardous materials,
provided certain other criteria are met in relation to the dimension of the tyre and the regrooving pattern and
method.

pneus-recreuses

Fitting retreads

There are no specific requirements in the UK Construction and Use Regulations in relation to the fitment of
retreaded tyres. However it is generally accepted in the UK and Ireland that retreaded tyres should not be fitted to front steer axles.

In line with EC Regulation 109 Michelin recommend uniformfitment (retread - retread) on the axle:

The specifications of the retreaded tyres fitted to a vehicle must be the same:

• retread brand
• tyre size
• tyre structure
• speed rating and tyre load indeces
• tyre tread type

It is NOT ADVISED to fit retreaded tyres from different retreaders on the same axle, regardless of
the make of the casing.

MIXED FITMENT (NEW - RETREAD) ON THE AXLE:

Michelin recommend that its tyres should only be mixed on the same axle if:

  • The retreaded and new tyres are MICHELIN
  • The makes of the casings are the same (new and retread).
  • The following technical characteristics of the retreaded and new tyres on the same axle are identical:
    • tyre dimensions,
    • structure (radial or diagonal),
    • speed rating and load indexes,
    • tread type (road, all-terrain, snow – M+S marking).
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MICHELIN Remix® tyres are designed and manufactured to be used on drive axles and trailer axles.
Michelin does not recommend fitting retreaded tyres on the front steer axle of motor vehicles.

Repairs

It is dangerous to ignore a damaged tyre.

MICHELIN truck tyres can be repaired under certain conditions; this possibility is planned in at the design stage.
However, not all kinds of damage can be repaired.

Repairing a tyre is a job for trained and qualified professionals. The tyre repairer always has sole responsibility for
the accuracy and quality of the work done on the tyre.

Further advice on tyre repair can be found in British Standard BS AU 159.

Repair must always be preceded by removal of the tyre and a thorough inspection both internal and external, by
the professional.

If any damage is found which cannot be repaired, such as over flexing of the reinforcing structure owing to the
deflated or severely under inflated running, the tyre must not be repaired.

Product life

Tyres are constructed using various types of material and rubber compounds, having performance properties essential to the proper functioning of the tyre itself. These component properties evolve over time. For each tyre, this evolution depends upon many elements such as weather, storage conditions and conditions of use (load, speed,inflation pressure, maintenance, etc.) to which the tyre is subjected throughout its life. This service related evolution varies widely so that accurately predicting the serviceable life of any specific tyre in advance is not possible.

That is why, in addition to regular inspections and inflation pressure maintenance by operators, Michelin recommend that tyres, including spare tyres, should be inspected regularly by a qualified tyre specialist, such as a tyre dealer, who will assess the tyre’s suitability for continued service. Tyres which are in use for 5 years or more from their date of manufacture should continue to be inspected by a specialist at least annually.

Operators are strongly encouraged to be aware not only of their tyres’ visual condition and inflation pressure but
also of any change in dynamic performance such as increased air loss, noise or vibration, which could be an indication that the tyres need to be removed from service.

The date when a tyre was manufactured is located on the sidewall of each tyre. Operators should locate the code on the tyre which begins with the letters DOT and ends with the week and year of manufacture. For example a DOT code ending in “2204” indicates a tyre made in the 22nd week (May) of 2004.

Winter regulations

Country Depth of tread pattern Requirement to use tires with M+S or 3PMFS symbols Use of chains Definition of winter period
Austria 5 mm (radial)
6 mm (diagonal)
YES
Drive axles only
Authorised on drive axle tyres, minimum 2 mm From 01/11 to 15/04 for trucks and 01/11 to 15/03 for coaches
Belgium 1.6 mm NO Authorised in winter conditions  
Bosnia & Herzegovina 4 mm YES
Drive axles only
In the absence of an M+S / 3PMSF symbol on the tyres, chains are obligatory along with a shovel and a bag of sand in the vehicle From 15/11 to 15/04
Croatia 4 mm YES
Drive axles only
Authorised in the absence of M+S / 3PMSF tires, minimum 4 mm Definition of winter conditions: snow-, ice- or slush-covered roads, or forecasts of these conditions
Czech Republic 5 mm YES
Drive axles only
Authorised in the absence of M+S / 3PMSF tyres, minimum 6 mm. Obligatory when indicated on road signs From 15/11 to 30/04 or when indicated on road signs
Denmark 1 mm NO Authorised  
Finland 1.6 mm NO Authorised in winter conditions Studded tyres can be used from 01/11 to 31/03
France 1 mm NO Authorised Studded tyres can be used from the Saturday preceding 01/11 until the last Sunday in March
Germany 1.6 mm YES
Drive axles only
Authorised
Speed limited to 50 km/h
Definition of winter conditions: snow-, ice- or slush-covered roads, or forecasts of these conditions
Greece 2 mm on the drive axles and 1.6 mm on all the others NO Chains compulsory when indicated on road signs Chains compulsory when indicated on road signs
Hungary 1.6 mm if the tire dimension is < 750 mm, 3 mm if it is > 750 mm NO Chains compulsory when indicated on road signs  
Italy 1.6 mm NO Compulsory in the absence of M+S / 3PMSF tires, when indicated on road signs Chains compulsory when indicated on road signs
Kosovo 4 mm YES
Drive axles only
Compulsory in winter conditions Definition of winter conditions: snow-, ice- or slush-covered roads, or forecasts of these conditions
Luxembourg 1.6 mm YES
Drive axles only
  Definition of winter conditions: snow-, ice- or slush-covered roads, or forecasts of these conditions
Macedonia 6 mm on the drive axles and 4 mm on the others. YES
All axles
In the absence of an M+S / 3PMSF symbol on the tyres, chains of minimum 4 mm are obligatory, along with a shovel and bag of sand in the vehicle From 15/11 to 15/03
Montenegro 4 mm YES
Drive axles only 
Chains, shovel and bag of sand when roads are snow-covered From 1/11 to 1/04
Netherlands 1.6 mm NO NOT authorised  
Norway 5 mm YES(1)
All axles, including lift axles
Authorised with a requirement to use 3 to 7 pairs of chains depending on the number of axles From 15/11 to 31/03
Poland 1.6 mm (3 mm for coaches) NO Chains compulsory when indicated on road signs Chains compulsory when indicated on road signs
Portugal 1 mm NO Chains compulsory when indicated on road signs  
Romania 1.6 mm YES Authorized on drive axles From 15/11 to 15/03
Russia 4 mm YES(1)
All axles(2)
Authorised The reference period is from  1/12 to 28/02. But any federal subject can extend this period if necessary
Serbia 4 mm YES
Drive axles only
Chains compulsory on at least 2 drive wheels along with a shovel From 01/11 to 01/04
Slovakia 3 mm YES
Drive axles only
Authorised in the absence of M+S / 3PMSF tires or if indicated on road signs From 15/11 to 31/03
Slovenia 4 mm YES
Drive axles only
Authorised in the absence of M+S / 3PMSF tires, minimum 3 mm From 15/11 to 31/03
Spain 1.6 mm NO Chains compulsory when indicated on road signs Truck traffic can be stopped by the authorities depending on driving conditions
Sweden 5 mm YES(1)
Drive axles
Authorised From 01/12 to 01/04
Switzerland 1.6 mm NO Chains compulsory when indicated on road signs  
Turkey 4 mm YES
Drive axles(3)
Authorise From 01/12 to 01/04
UK 1 mm NO Not compulsory From 01/12 to 01/04
Other EU countries 1.6 mm NO Chains compulsory when indicated on road signs In some countries, chains or winter tires can be compulsory as dictated by road signs
(1) The tires must be specifically designed for winter conditions.
(2) On trailer axles as of 2015.
(3) On trailer axles in the future.
Provided for informational purposes only, may be subject to changes in local regulations.

The M+S symbol is a manufacturer’s independent statement based on their own non-regulatory standards.
The Alpine (3PMSF) symbol is awarded if the tire passes a traction test in winter conditions performed in accordance with UNECE Regulation 117.
The test results are tangible and comparable. 3PMSF is the only real standard for measuring winter mobility.

The E2 marking

The tyres produced by Michelin are designed to meet the specific driving conditions in the geographic areas where they are intended for sale and use. For Europe, MICHELIN tyres must bear the E2 marking proving that they are suitable for driving conditions in Europe in the following countries:

Albania

Germany

Andorra

Austria

Belarus

Belgium

Bosnia-Herzegovina

Croatia

Denmark

Spain

Estonia

Faroe Islands

Finland

France

Georgia

Greece

Greenland

Hungary

Ireland

Iceland

Italiy

Kazakhstan

Latvia

Liechtenstein

Lithuania

Luxemburg

Macedonia

Republic of Moldova.

Monaco

Norway

Netherlands

Poland

Portugal

Romania

United Kingdom

Russia

San Marino

Slovakia

Slovenia

Sweden

Switzerland

Czech Rep.

Ukraine

Vatican

Yugoslavia

The FRT marking

The term FRT is defined in ECE Regulation 54 Revision 2 Corrigendum 1 dated 3 December 2004 (paragraph 3.1.15):
“The inscription “FRT” (Free Rolling Tyre) in case of tyres designed for the equipment of trailer axles and axles of motor vehicles other than front steering and drive axles.”

The MICHELIN interpretation of this sidewall marking is in line with that defined by ETRTO (European Tyre & Rim Technical Organisation) and should be considered as the Michelin response to any questions asked concerning these markings, regardless of how the ETRTO definition is currently interpreted in the UK or Ireland by the various authorities.

All future MICHELIN Group documentation will reinforce this view.

MICHELIN does not recommend the fitment of any MICHELIN Group Trailer tyres (MICHELIN, Taurus, Kormoran, Riken) to the Front Steer axle and Drive axle positions.

Regrooving

Principal European regulations

Country Restrictions on fitting regrooved tyres Withdrawal of HGV tyres from use depending on wear (excluding winter usage)
Minimum depth Observations
GERMANY Forbidden on the
 directional axles of coaches
 travelling at 100 km/h or more
1.6 mm  
AUSTRIA Forbidden on all directional
 axles for all HGVs
2 mm  
BELGIUM None 1.6 mm  
BULGARIA Forbidden on all directional
axles for all HGVs
1.6 mm  
CROATIA None 1.6 mm  
DENMARK None 1 mm  
SPAIN None N/A  
ESTONIA None 1.6 mm  
FINLAND None 1.6 mm  
FRANCE None 1 mm  
GREECE None 2 mm  
HUNGARY Forbidden on single
 axles dfor coaches and buses
5 mm for coaches and buses with tyres
 of &gt diameters; 750 mm
 3 mm for other coaches and buses
 1.6 mm for other vehicles
 
ITALY None 1.6 mm  
LATVIA None 1.6 mm  
LITHUANIA None 1 mm  
LUXEMBURG None 1 mm for trailers
 1.6 mm for trucks
 
NORWAY None 1.6 mm  
NETHERLANDS None N/A  
POLAND Forbidden on single
 axles for coaches travellling
 at 100 km/h or more
3 mm for coaches
 travelling at 100 km/h or more
 1.6 mm for other vehicles
 
PORTUGAL None    
ROMANIA None 1.6 mm  
RUSSIA Forbidden on all directional
 axles for all HGVs
2 mm for coaches and buses
 1 mm for other HGVs
 
SERBIA None 2 mm  
SLOVAKIA None 1.6 mm  
SLOVENIA None 1.6 mm  
SWEDEN None 1.6 mm Outer tyres twinned. No min. depth
 except in winter.
SWITZERLAND None 1.6 mm  
CZECH REP. Forbidden on the directional
 axles of coaches and buses
1.6 mm  
TURKEY None 1.6 mm  
UNITED
 KINGDOM
None 1 mm  
UKRAINE Forbidden on the directional
 axles of all HGVs
2 mm for coaches and buses
 1 mm for other HGVs