Advice

Guide to tyres

EVOLUTION OF MARKINGS FOR MICHELIN TRUCK, BUS AND COACH TYRES FROM JUNE 2012

The markings for MICHELIN tyres are being updated and renewed as the ranges are replaced in order to make it easier to read the product information.

These new markings consist of three elements:

  • The MICHELIN brand: the mark of an authentic product.
  • The range of tyres: indicating the suggested conditions of use.
  • The size and position of the tyre: indicating the suggested position on the vehicle.

These markings make it easy to identify the product and understand its intended use. Indication of intended axle position make it clearer for service providers.

These new markings are also being applied to retreaded tyres as they are gradually replaced.

The names of Michelin Tyres

MICHELIN currently uses the following naming convention for its tyres:

appellation1

This system is being updated to help identify the conditions of use of the tyre: these markings will gradually be applied as ranges are renewed, as was the case with the replacement of the MICHELIN XTE 2 tyre by the MICHELIN X® MULTI™ T:

appellation2

In some cases product designations will also include an option which expresses an additional benefit of the product to meet the specific needs of the haulier. For example:

appellation3

Picture for illustration purposes only

OPTIONS 
ENERGY™: Fuel efficiency
GRIP : All season grip
WINTER: Winter conditions 
ICEGRIP: Grip in icy conditions
HD : Reinforced casing 
HL : Heavy loads
This list is subject to change.

Glance through points

  • Placement of wear indicator
  • Range's PICTOGRAM
  • Range's LOGO
  • DOT indicating the tire's plant code and date of manufacture (week + year)
  • Regroovable: Tire can be regrooved
  • Name of the dimension:
    Tire section in mm
    Series: Height ratio at section x 100
    R: Radial structure
    Interior diameter
  • Load capacity index and speed code
    Placement of single point by dimension
  • Figure showing tire's position
  • Tubeless: mounted without an inner tube
  • Letter indicating the tire's position
  • Michelin brand logo
  • Europe Approval Code
  • M + S marking, usage category

Speed symbol

SPEED CODES Speed in km/h
D 65
E 70
F 80
G 90
SPEED SYMBOL Speed in km/h
J 100
K 110
L 120
M 130
SPEED SYMBOL Speed in km/h
N 140
P 150
Q 160
R 170

LOAD CAPACITY INDICES

INDEX Load in kg
100 800
101 825
102 850
103 875
104 900
105 925
106 950
107 975
108 1000
109 1030
110 1060
111 1090
112 1120
113 1150
114 1180
115 1215
116 1250
117 1285
118 1320
119 1360
INDEX Load in kg
120 1400
121 1450
122 1500
123 1550
124 1600
125 1650
126 1700
127 1750
128 1800
129 1850
130 1900
131 1950
132 2000
133 2060
134 2120
135 2180
136 2240
137 2300
138 2360
139 2430
INDEX Load in kg
140 2500
141 2575
142 2650
143 2725
144 2800
145 2900
146 3000
147 3075
148 3150
149 3250
150 3350
151 3350
152 3550
153 3650
154 3750
155 3875
156 4000
157 4125
158 4250
159 4375
INDEX Load in kg
160 4500
161 4625
162 4750
163 4875
164 5000
165 5150
166 5300
167 5450
168 5600
169 5800
170 6000
171 6150
172 6300
173 6500
174 6700
175 6900
176 7100
177 7300
178 7500
179 7750
 

Risk when overloading

Using a tyre at loads greater than the figure indicated on the tyre can cause irreversible damage to the structure of the tyre that may later lead to a rapid deflation.

Choosing the most suitable tyre for your vehicle: an important step

Michelin offers a wide variety of choices, capable of adapting its tyres to different types of vehicles, journeys and conditions. In compliance with legislation and the necessary technical requirements, Michelin can help you choose and fit the most appropriate tyre.

Advice and precautions for use

Respecting current legislation in your country and the fitment recommended by both vehicle and tyre manufacturers: size, load indices, speed symbols, structure. If the original equipment is modified, check the prevailing regulations in the country. In some countries, the modified vehicle may need to apply for additional authorisation.

Taking into account the variety of conditions for usage. Consider your own specific requirements (long journeys, driving in winter and extreme conditions) to make sure you have the most suitable tyres.

It is recommended to fit tyres with similar levels of wear on the same axle. Some countries have a legal requirement for the maximum variation. Depending on the country it is either compulsory, or strongly advised, to fit tyres with the same tread pattern on the same axle.

Never use the tyre in ways other than those for which the technical characteristics have been approved. Certain excessive geometric or abnormal settings for the vehicle can have an adverse effect on the performance of the tyre.

Incorrect usage or the wrong choice of tyre for your vehicle can also contribute to the premature wearing of some mechanical parts.

Choosing the most suitable "truck" tyre in 3 steps

There are three main types of axle for HGVs: Front steer axle, drive axle and carry axle.

Essieux

To drive safely and optimise your profitability, respect certain criteria when choosing your tyres.

3 steps to follow:

Decide on the correct use for your tyre

Make your selection from among the 6 ranges of MICHELIN tyres. Each range corresponds to different requirements and conditions of use for hauliers. 

Decide on the right size of tyre

The maximum load for an axle is given by the vehicle manufacturer depending on current regulations. Simply fitting tyres that can bear a greater load to an axle does not mean it is possible to take on loads greater than those approved by the manufacturer.

There are wheels that correspond to each size of truck tyre or tyres (width of rim): consult the ETRTO Standards Manual and/or the manufacturer's recommendations.

Never fit a tyre to an unapproved rim: there is a risk of damage to the wheel and/or tyre, insufficient contact patch, over working of the tyre casing, grip and longevity can also be affected.

Choosing the right tread pattern

Follow the criteria for choosing the tread pattern of truck tyres according to the position of the axle on the vehicle.

When fitting to a front steer axle, you must:

  • use only 'F' or 'Z' marked tread patterns
  • never use a 'T' marked tread pattern*

When fitting to a drive axle, you should use a 'D' marked tread pattern
When fitting to a trailer axle, you should use a 'T' tread pattern

*Michelin may not be held responsible for the consequences of damage caused by not following these recommendations.

Essieux-camion

*These tyres are especially designed for use on a trailer axle and are not designed or intended for use on the front steer axles of powered vehicles. Michelin shall not be held responsible for the consequences of not following these recommendations.

When fitting to a front steer axle, you must:
Use “F” or “Z” tread patterns only. These tread patterns are designed and manufactured to cope with the specific stresses and strains imposed on the steering axles of motor vehicles: dynamic load, axle geometry, high mileage, etc.

When fitting to a drive axle, you must:
Use tyres with “D” or “Z” tread patterns exclusively. “D” tread patterns are designed to cope with the specific stresses of drive axles: transmission of engine and brake torque, twin fitment, the highest axle load of the whole vehicle combination. Tyres with a “Z” tread pattern can be fitted on drive axles, but the, compromise likely in mileage performance needs to be considered carefully. “D” tread patterns offer optimised performance in the areas of traction and tyre longevity when compared to the “Z” tread patterns. However in certain particular conditions of use, for example urban, 'Z' marked tread patterns may have been optimised for use on a drive axle.

When fitting to a carry axle, you must:
Use tyres with “T” or “Z” tread patterns exclusively. These tread patterns are designed to cope with the specific stresses and strains of trailer axles: static and dynamic loads, scrubbing, high mileage on the centre axles, etc.
Tyres with “T” tread patterns bear load indices and speed ratings suited to trailers or semi-trailers. When fitting tyres with “Z” tread patterns check that the load and speed ratings comply with the needs of the axle.
Tyres with “T” tread patterns made by MICHELIN in Europe bear the“FRT” (Free Rolling Tyre) marking, standardised by the ETRTO so “T” tread patterns must never be used on front steer or drive axles.

The FRT marking:                                                                                                                                                        The term FRT is defined in ECE Regulation 54 Revision 2 Corrigendum 1 dated 3 December 2004 (paragraph 3.1.15): “The inscription “FRT” (Free Rolling Tyre) in case of tyres designed for the equipment of trailer axles and axles of motor vehicles other than front steering and drive axles.”

The MICHELIN interpretation of this sidewall marking is in line with that defined by ETRTO (European Tyre & Rim Technical Organisation) and should be considered as the Michelin response to any questions asked concerning these markings, regardless of how the ETRTO definition is currently interpreted in the UK or Ireland by the various authorities.

All future MICHELIN Group documentation will reinforce this view.

MICHELIN does not recommend the fitment of any MICHELIN Group Trailer tyres (MICHELIN, Taurus, Kormoran, Riken) to the Front Steer axle and Drive axle positions.

The UK Construction and Use Regulations do not expressly forbid the fitting of tyres marked FRT to the front steer axles of commercial vehicles. We understand that such a fitment should not result in a failure of the annual VOSA vehicle test.

Certain European countries have adopted the ETRTO definition within their national regulations and as such prohibit such use. Please see the local national regulations for more information.

THE CASING BEARS WEIGHT
THE SIDEWALL ABSORBS SHOCKS
THE HEEL TRANSMITS
THE CROWN PLIES GUIDE
THE RUBBER RESISTS WEAR
THE RUBBER RESISTS WEAR

Forces that resist movement

To be able to move, energy is required. To reduce fuel consumption, it is necessary to reduce the effects of the forces that resist the movement of vehicles (the gravity related to the weight of the vehicle, air resistance, mechanical friction). Rolling resistance on tyres, very often underestimated, is nevertheless responsible for one third of fuel consumption.

Aerodynamic drag, gravity and inertia

resistance_01

Mechanical friction and engine efficiency

resistance_02

Rolling resistance of tyres

resistance_03

The wheel, a safety factor

The wheel is a genuine vehicle safety element:

  • It ensures an airtight fit with the tyre
  • It bears the load
  • It helps achieve fuel savings
  • It transmits power
  • It helps dissipate heat
  • It contributes to weight efficiency
  • It contributes to the vehicle's appearance
roue2

Consult rim and wheel manufacturers recommendation to ensure that the rim and wheel's resistance is sufficient for the planned conditions of use. *

* source ETRTO

Wheel name

Innovations_Roue_a_Valve_V0R3_decoupe_01

Wheel with protected valve

To prevent damage to the valve (when an object gets stuck in the wheel), Michelin recommends the use of a protected valve wheel

The valve is positioned outside the disk.

Protected valve wheel

 The valve is protected.

Conventional wheel

 Danger if a stone gets stuck between the disk and the brake caliper

roue_alv
roue_classique_ilv

Reversible wheel

Reversible wheels for semi-trailers and trailers are fitted with dual output valves, enabling the tyre/wheel set to be turned around if necessary.

Reversible wheel (REV)

roue_reversible

X-One wheels

The X-One wheel and tyre assembly can carry an additional load of up to 130 kg, while providing up to a 1.5% improvement in fuel efficiency.

Twinned wheels

X-One wheel

Roues-jumelees
Roue-X-One

Twin wheels (diagram)

2 Wheels 22.5 x 9.00 for a 315/70 R 22.5 tyre

2 Wheels 22.5 x 7.50 for a 275/70 R 22.5 tyre

X-One wheels (diagram)

1 Wheel 22.5 x 17.00 for a 495/45 R 22.5 tyre

1 Wheel 22.5 x 15.00 for a 455/45 R 22.5 tyre

Fitting the wheel

Innovations_Roue_a_Valve
  • Use the fittings recommended by the manufacturer (studs, nuts,)
  • Respect the torque settings recommended by the manufacturer of the vehicle or the axle
  • Tighten in the order shown in the diagram above
  • Always finish tightening using a torque wrench or, failing that, with the tools provided by the vehicle manufacturer
  • Always check the wheel nut torque after 50 km then after a further 100 km or following the vehicle manufacturers recommendations. Check periodically thereafter